The dried flowers and buds of Sophora japonica have been used as a traditional medicine in Eastern
Asian countries such as China, Japan, and Korea to treat bleeding hemorrhoids and hematemesis. It is known to have the purpose of clearing “heat” purging pathogenic “fire”, and cooling the blood.
Modern pharmacological studies have shown that Sophora japonica contains both anti-hemorrhagic and anti-hemostatic substances. Fructus Sophorae can promote blood coagulation and reduce the permeability of blood vessel walls because of the presence of glucosides (Wang et al., 2002). Main components of Sophora japonica include flavones, tetra glycosides, isoflavones, isoflavone tetra glycosides, triterpene glycosides, phospholipids, alkaloids, amino acids, and polysaccharides. Moreover, Sophora japonica contains five main flavonoids of rutin, quercetin, isorhamnetin, isorhamnetin, genistein and kaempferol.
Being rich in quercetin(21), isorhamnetin(34), isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside(35), kaikasaponin I(96), and rutin can significantly shorten the bleeding time and recalcification time in mice, indicating a favorable antihemorrhagic effect (Ishida et al.,1989; Zhao et al.,2010).
The anti-hemorrhagic effect of quercetin (water extracts of the buds of Sophora japonica) was due to stabilization of capillary integrity. Oral administration of Sophora japonica extracts (containing rutin, quercetin, and tannin) for five days reduced capillary permeability, bleeding time and coagulation time in mice and reduced prothrombin time in rats, thereby demonstrating the hemostatic effect of Sophora japonica. Isorhamnetin from Sophora japonica was also anti-hemostatic, as a result of increased capillary permeability and reduced platelet aggregation.
Such findings indicates that Sophora japonica contains both anti-hemorrhagic and anti-hemostatic substances. Sophora japonica reduces cerebral infarction partly as a result of its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. However, further study is required to determine the relationship between Sophora japonica-mediated reduction in cerebral infarction size and its effects on platelet aggregation and cardiovascular function.
Chen, H.-N., & Hsieh, C.-L. (2010). Effects of Sophora japonica flowers (Huaihua) on cerebral infarction. Chinese Medicine, 5, 34. http://doi.org/10.1186/1749-8546-5-34
Ishida, H., Umino, T., Tsuji, K., Kosuge, T., 1989. Studies on the anti hemostatic substances in herbs classified as hemostatics in traditional Chinese medicine. I. on the anti hemostatic principles in Sophora japonica L. Chem.Pharm.Bull.37, 1616–1618. Izumi, T., Piskula, M.
Wang, J., Tang, Y., Lou, F. ,2002. The chemical ingredient and pharmacological activity of Fructus Sophorae. Bot.J. Overseas Med.17,58–60.Wang, J.H., Lou, F.C., Wang, Y.L., Tang, Y.P., 2003 a.A flavonoltetra glycoside