Obesity is common but serious and costly. It is a noticeable risk factor for metabolic disorders, coronary heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, and certain forms of cancer. Thus, it may reduce life expectancy and/or increase health problems. More than two-thirds of U.S adults are considered to be overweight or obese, which is 68.8% of the population. Here are some test results that may interest those looking for something new that may help with obesity:
In vivo, S. japonica was used to control body weight and obesity-related metabolic diseases. Oral administration of total flavonoids from Fructus Sophorae at doses of 40, 80, 120 mg/kg once daily for 6 weeks decreased the total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, and increase the high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) level in the blood in lipid metabolite of high lipid rats (Wang et al., 2009).
Diets containing mature fruits of S. japonica prevent body weight gain in high-fat diet induced obesity. S. japonica (5%) in combination with a 30% high-fat diet for 4weeks significantly decreases body weight again, reduces serum and hepatic TG levels, and reduces the serum TC and HDL-C levels in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, S. japonica decreased the number of large adipocytes while also increasing the number of small adipocytes, and lowering the glucose level and fat mass in high-fat diet induced obese mice (El-Halawany et al.,2009).
In vitro, at a concentration of 50 ug/mL the EtOAc extracts of mature fruit of S. japonica inhibit morphological differentiation and lipid accumulation in C3H10T1/2 and 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Molecular studies indicate that the EtOAc fraction extracts also reduce the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and other adipocyte markers. Furthermore, the EtOAc fraction extracts have the highest total phenolic contents, with genistein probably mediating the anti-adipogenic effects of the EtOAcfractions(Jung et al.,2011).
In 2010, Ha et al. showed that quercetin(21) and quercein3-O- [β-D- glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-6)-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(33) from FlosSophorae are endogenous adipogenesis inhibitors, exhibiting significant inhibitory effects on lipid accumulation and adipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner by regulating the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase(AMPK) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)signaling pathways(Ha et al.,2010).
The US alone spends about $190.2 billion dollars on prevention and treatment for obesity. Although the healthy diet and moderate exercise have been proven to help with obesity, people are always looking something to support their progress. Although these tests are in vivo and vitro, there is positive outlook of S. japonica aiding in obesity.
El-Halawany, A.M., Chung, M.H., Abdallah, H.M., Nishihara, T., Hattori, M., Park,K. W., Lee, J.E., Park, K.M., 2009. Diets containing Sophora japonica L. prevent weight gain in high-fat diet induced obese mice. Nutr. Res. 29, 819–824.
Ha, D.T., Trung, T.N.,Phuong, T.T., Yim,N., Chen, Q.C., Bae, K., 2010. The selected flavonolglycoside derived from Sophorae flos improves glucose uptake and inhibits adipocyte differentiation via activation AMPKin3T3-L1cells. Bio org. Med. Chem. Lett. 20, 6076–6081.
Jung, S.R., Kim, Y.J., Gwon, A.R., Lee, J., Jo, D.G., Jeon, T.J., Hong, J.W., Park, K.M., Park, K.W., 2011. Genistein mediates the anti-adipogenic actions of Sophora japonica L. extracts. J. Med. Food 14, 360–368.
Wang, Y.H., Long, X.F., He, F., Wang, J.B., Yuan, J.L., 2009. Study of total flavonoid from Fructus Sophorae on lipid-lowering in hyperlipidemic rats and its antioxidant capacity. J. Fourth Mil. Med. Univ. 30, 2677–2681.